This is the second part of the article on ancient Greek dress Jewelry Ancient Greeks had an affinity for earrings, bracelets, necklaces, More »
If I would be a standing voice and had the choice to put forth my words, I would definitely have chosen leggings fashion as the most emerging one in town which is the most comfortable and stylish fashion that I have ever seen More »
This is the second part of the article on ancient Greek dress
Ancient Greeks had an affinity for earrings, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, and rings, made of metal and semiprecious stones. Precious metals were also used, but gold became popular only in the 6th century BC.
Jewelry evolved over time. During the Archaic period, jewelry pieces were simple and mainly functional. Such were the pins or brooches used to fasten the himation or the chiton, or the seal rings used to seal letters and important documents. By Hellenistic times goldsmiths had mastered their craft and jewelry featured an exquisite design and composition.
The sandals were the common footwear for both men and women. The Greek sandal featured several straps, which stretched between the toes to the ankle in various fashions. They were minimal, light, and left the foot almost bare. Although high heels are considered to be a 16thcentury invention, already in ancient Greece women tried to make themselves taller by attaching cork sole to the leather sole. For travel or warfare, men wore fitted shoes – ankle-high or mid-calf length -and boots that either laced up or stayed on the foot with the help of a criss-cross thong at the toe.
Hats and head-dresses
Headgear came in different shapes and styles. There were several variations of a cone-shaped hat. The bonnet was another known style. The pilos was a brimless skull cap made from felt or wool. Women wore scarves, wrapped around the head. The saccus featured a tassel at the back as well as nets or snoods to hold the hair back. The petasos was made of woven straw. It featured a brim that could be turned up or down, and could also be fastened at the neck by a ribbon.
Hair styles for men and women were initially similar. In the early ages men wore their hair fussy with curls forming a crown around the forehead or braids wound around the head. But styles eventually were simplified and long hair became acceptable only for the elderly male, young men or boys.
Hair styles were known by names: the kepos was unkempt, the Hectorean style involved cutting and combing the hair backward into curls, and the Theseid featured strands of hair worn short at the forehead while the rest hung down longer at the back of the neck.
Young girls let their hair fall freely. Older women wore their hair long and let it fall loose over the shoulders. They could also wear their hair parted in the middle, waved, and scraped back so as to expose the ears. Sometimes, three or four strands, or spiral curls, were sectioned from the rest of the hair and styled so they hung down over the forehead while the rest of the hair hung down loosely at the back. Bands, ribbons, diadems, or strings of pearls added sophistication to hairdos.
Beauty and grooming
Make-up was used by most women. It consisted in applying a white base color to the face, rouge to the cheekbones, and painting one’s lips. The base color was often made of lead, which could have fatal consequences, while the rouge was made from vermilion or vegetables. Women would also use eye make-up, which involved Egyptian kohl and shadows in different colors. Eyebrows were groomed and, painted black.
Perfumes were very popular, especially the essences of violet, mint, myrrh, marjoram, and thyme. The Greeks often applied different scents to different body areas.
Women conditioned their skin on a daily basis, used depilatories to remove body hair, and used different concoctions on both their face and body.
Good physical shape was important for both sexes, although only men were allowed in the palestra – a complex devoted to exercise.
Fashion accessories include all those items that accentuate the personal look and style of a person. Today, fashion accessories are available in all kinds of materials and designs. Women never get tired of buying more and more accessories. Hence, they have a great demand. Read on to find out more about fashion accessories and where to get them from.
Women go to great lengths to accentuate their looks and can spend a good deal of money doing so. This is one of the main reasons why there are so many companies involved in cosmetics, garments and accessories. Women are often more conscious of fashion trends and therefore keep updated of the latest trends. Fashion accessories are one of those knick knacks that women absolutely love to flaunt. The reason is they enhance your overall appeal or can even give a new touch of style to even a bland looking dress. Fashion accessories may include everything from earrings, bracelets, anklets, rings and charms and so on.
What is great about fashion accessories is that they come in myriad kinds of designs and makes and are loved by everyone from school kids, teenagers, women to even boys and men, depending of course on the type of accessory it is. However, for the most part, they are used by girls and women who love to purchase fashion accessories for all their outfits and are often never satisfied, however large a collection they may possess. Unlike, jewellery that is precious and limited for a few special occasions, fashion accessories is suitable for everyone and for every occasion.
These accessories are available in a great variety and choosing the right accessories with the right outfit can quickly make you a trendsetter among your peers. From cute bracelets that go well with denims to the heavy, colourful, chunky bracelets, much needed for a bohemian look or shiny, elegant one for a party, there are limitless choices. Earrings are one fashion accessory that helps you get a completely new look. They are available in a great variety again, from tiny, bling earrings to glittering ones, shells or simple danglers, there are boundless options. This is the thing about fashion jewellery. There are countless accessories in myriad varieties and there are countless materials that can be used in fashion accessories. From metal to plastic, shells, glass, stones and several other materials can be used in making fashion accessories.
What makes fashion accessories so popular is that they can give very different and unique looks and you can choose the accessories that bring out your personality and enhances your looks. They reflect your personality by the way you dress up. In terms of costs, fashion accessories are quite affordable, one reason why women never seem to get enough of them. There is a great market for fashion accessories and currently, it shows no signs of abating. In fact there will only be constant growth with increased demand in the market as more and more women and teenagers are getting increasingly conscious about their looks. There are many fashion accessory manufacturers offering a superb range of fashion accessories.
The best place to look for a vast collection of fashion accessories is on the Internet. Since, the Internet provides a wide access; you can find the largest and the best collection of fashion accessories supplied by many online stores. Fashion accessories are here to stay and will only grow in popularity.
If I would be a standing voice and had the choice to put forth my words, I would definitely have chosen leggings fashion as the most emerging one in town which is the most comfortable and stylish fashion that I have ever seen and felt. With the era of emerging e-commerce portals and small retail outlets everywhere, it has become very easy to find a suitable pair of leggings. You can buy your favorite pair of leggings online or offline wherever you want and in the bulk by comparing all, you will be able to make a good decision to buy the most appropriate one.
There is no doubt that leggings entered the fashion industry long back in 1960s. But with the new variety being added each day, leggings appear now in various fabrics to serve their purpose throughout the year in different seasons. Cotton, cotton-lycra, nylon, silk, wool and many others are added on the leggings’ segment and made it a versatile piece of clothing. Knowing your preferences and purpose, choosing a suitable fabric is important for you and for that you have to dedicate certain amount of time.
Leggings are not only considered versatile because it can be worn in any season. But it has many other aspects too to offer people. Leggings are broadly divided into ankle length and churidar leggings. Ankle length leggings have begun a new era where women are much comfortably carrying tunics and their short dresses paired with ankle length leggings. Now they are bold enough to flaunt their little black dress and slim or curvy figure. On the other hands, churidar leggings are coming extremely important to enhance the getup of churidar kameez.
Churidar leggings are suitable to get paired with short or long kurtis and give a beautiful look and fitting. Traditional regular churidars, lacking elasticity and stretchable base, are not much comfortable to carry. But the arrival of such free size leggings in marketplace has strengthened women to flaunt any style they want within no time and with very little banking. Most importantly, the major factors of leggings that are making it shine in the fashion industry while leaving behind the other clothing apparels are its availability, versatility, affordability and durability.
As the factors like availability and versatility are discussed above, you should also know how affordable leggings are and it lasts for a long period of time without getting torn or fade. Thus in little time, effort and money, you can get an appearance just like your favorite style icon only through a single piece of clothing- leggings.
The glorious age saw remarkable revolution in the field of art, culture and fashion. The flourishing period of passion and literature was the Edwardian era, unlike the Victorian age.
A total revolution in the facets of crafts, literature, social and political scenario, stage forms and styles of the age itself find its change. Ideological alteration also happened during this period. Edwardian literature was further intense in its spirit and artistic excellence. The Main proponent in the Edwardian era was the prolific writer George Bernard Shaw. The politics, norms and overall conception of the society was questioned by him through his writings. E.M. Forster introduced the themes based on the indifference of English people through his works. E.M. Forster pioneered the subjects based on the indifference of English people through his works. E.M. Forster introduced the themes based on the indifference of English people through his works. Thomas Hardy and Rudyard Kipling are other geniuses who revived ballads, satire and other narrative forms in literature.
Edwardian era was enormously active in all sorts of sports and entertainments, in addition to literature. The most popular sports of that time, hunting animals was also apart of Edwardian era fashion for both men and women. Men and Women got a new voice in the social and economic state of affairs. Another notable feature of this period is the eradication of child labor. A lot of developmental changes were made to the upper and middle class society.
Life in England during the period was splendorous due to style and trends in the field of dressing pattern, Education, Architecture and all other peripheral and ideological norms. Houses of Edwardian times were 2 floored along the landscapes.
The foremost change happened was in the dressing style of women during this period. Edwardian era trend was evident even in the skirts of the women of those times. Skirts were made of fine fabrics, which helped to exhibit the feminine outlines. Women were seen more pretty in that dress. During the Edwardian era, an aesthetic sense was ostensible in architectural forms. New ideas blended together in contemporary and classical architecture gave rise to advancements in the form of garden cities and suburbia.
An excessive development in the hairstyles that went along with a large Edwardian hat was seen in this era. Curled hair for women was a fashion that time. A new trendy bob hairstyle also became prevalent during this period. Edwardian epoch was actually an age of relaxation, free from all kinds of boredom. Women disguised to be beautiful innately even though they were not so.
Diamonds and platinum ornaments were excessively used and became a fashion in this era. The light weighted jewelry adds stylishness and style to the women. Edwardian men too were in the main stream of fashion like all others. Three-piece suits with challenging colors made them more special. Unlike Victorians, Edwardians preferred more light shade colors in their garments and thoughts itself.
The vogue and trends created a new style in the Edwardian life of England. The new dogmas and philosophies brought a fresh outlook to the United Kingdom that was completely different from the past histories.
Fashion and design partnerships are one of the strongest opportunities being leveraged by brands to market products to those cutting edge trendsetters and influencers that closely follow – and lead – today’s fashion trends.
Fashion partnerships result in an enhanced image and an overall sense of innovation and hipness to the brand. These partnerships are typically different enough to break through the clutter, gain consumer interest, attract press, and generate consumer buzz. In fact, fashion, like music, is globally one of the most popular categories in terms of online consumer interest as it too transcends culture and breaks down barriers.
No longer are fashion events and content limited to fashion brands – today you see brands of all types leveraging fashion, ranging from title-owning Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week, Subway’s runway dress made out of wrappers, Moët & Chandon on the Golden Globes Red Carpet to Intel and HP’s multi-year long partnership with fashion-themed television series Project Runway.
A fashion initiative has the ability to elevate the brand and provide the perception of appearing out-of-the box and cutting edge to consumers. It is important to remember that there needs to be a rhyme or reason behind the partnership. By looking at the core fundamentals of the brand’s objectives and messaging, a mutually beneficial campaign will result in success for both the brand and the partner when identifying the common ground in messaging.
For savvy brands and marketers of all types, opportunities are available at a wide range of fee levels (read: very affordable to quite hefty) to create noteworthy partnerships that will get noticed by both media and consumers, while also providing content to significantly drive social media conversations. Brands no longer need to go to Paris to find success with fashion, and almost any brand can create a successful and sales-impacting organic partnership through one of these four platforms.
• Partnering With Fashion Events
Fashion event opportunities exist with large scale events, such as the “official” partnerships with Mercedes-Benz NY Fashion Week to smaller Fashion Week offshoots that are often just as press worthy and impactful, including runway shows and celebrity gifting lounges. There are fashion weeks held in cities all over the world, the most prominent in the U.S. being New York Fashion Week and Los Angeles Fashion Week held twice a year, in February and September. Also included in the fashion event category are fashion designer showcases held at locations year round or celebrity driven award shows where the red carpet is often the highlight of the night.
Fashion events provide immense traffic and engagement in social media. Based on data gathered by Social Curation and Analytics company Curalate, it was found that during New York Fashion Week 2013, there were 100,000 related Twitter and Instagram shared by more than 33,000 unique users. On average, the top NYFW brand photos generated 37,448 interactions per photo, most of which were product-driven. Marketing campaigns are extremely effective when they take place in real-time, live at an event or location. Out of the 100K+ posts that drove the most engagement, 90% were taken on site at the NYFW.
As an example of this social success, Harman-Kardon created a NY Fashion Week partnership 3 day event to launch their fashion-friendly white headphones, based on their ‘beautiful sound’ platform. During and following the event, the brand’s social media traffic increased by 970%, and they received over 19 million social media impressions and 370 million national press impressions.
• Partnering with Fashion Designers
Whether brands want to establish themselves as risk-taking and groundbreaking, or more proven with long-standing character, custom alignments exist with fashion designers and events whose personality reflect those same valued traits. Celebrity and newly emerging designers offer opportunities to create endorsement partnerships and to liven up brand campaigns, trade events or event point of sale.
• Partnering With Fashion TV Series
Fashion in Television is a constant theme, with series devoted to covering and showcasing fashion trends. Networks such as Lifetime (Project Runway), E! (Fashion Police), Bravo (Rachel Zoe), NBC (Access Hollywood, Extra) all offer sponsorship opportunities as well as options to integrate brands directly into the content. Even daily talk shows typically have a fashion segment, which brands can creatively become part of. Additionally, scripted series can provide the basic storylines of fashion similar to the previous hit Sex In The City format. The targeted viewer is typically the coveted female demographic, with an average age 25 to 49.
Pilot Pen created a 4 month long digital partnership with NBC’s Fashion Star television series. A branded customized fashion trivia game was developed with a grand prize trip to NY Fashion Week, supported by ad units across the NBC platform along with the series website and print. Additionally social media drove conversations both from the show’s designers and the brand’s fan base. The partnership reached more than 14 million consumers, with website visits 184% over goal and sweepstakes entries 85% over goal.
• Partnering With Fashion Bloggers
Fashion bloggers provide a very strong platform to share brand fashion driven strategies, and can include consumer sampling and sweepstakes components.
Once upon a time, New York Fashion Week was only for a very exclusive group consisting of the fashion elite and insiders. Today, largely with the help of fashion bloggers – “everyday” girls who have managed to become big time influencers – everything is much more accessible with wider public appeal. In fact, fashion – above technology, food, sports, travel – is one of the most popular blog categories, with 3 million Google searches a day, second only to music.
The proper strategic alignment within the fashion world can elevate and solidify a brands image, while tapping into a following that is enthusiastic and eager to engage online. To create a partnership that is relevant and makes sense, it is important to work with industry experts who understand the landscape and what kind of opportunities are out there to identify and activate exactly how your brand can harmoniously and successfully partner with a fashion initiative.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8563058
We all want to look stylish and fashionable. But style is a personal aspect, it means different things to different people. What is stylish for you might not be stylish for your friend. But it is always great to try new styles every now and then. It will help you discover your personal style statement. Experiment with different styles, prints and colours. It will not only give your wardrobe a refreshing change but will also make you feel self-assured. When you are dressed to the nines, you will feel confident even when you are having a bad hair day. For all your fashion needs, resort to online shopping.
We all have different personalities. Moreover, individually, we have different sides to our personality. Wearing different outfits helps us flaunt these sides. Western outfits bring out the fun, casual side of your personality. Ethnic wear makes you look traditional and elegant. If you want to go the unconventional way, try a fusion of these styles. Wear a short kurta with a pair of jeans. With the advent of technology, you can resort to online shopping for all these style needs. Casual wear, formal wear, party wear – you name it, online stores have it.
Casuals Wear – Stay Cool and Comfortable
To flaunt a fun and casual look, try casual wear. Whether you are going out with your friends or just staying indoors, casual clothing will make you feel cool and comfortable. This summer, bring home stylish casuals like tees, polos, casual shirts. Team them with jeans, shorts or chinos. If you want to upgrade your wardrobe further, choose from jackets, sweaters, bandanas, scarves and more.
Formals – Look Smart and Elegant
Formals bring out the best in every man.They give him a sophisticated look wherever he goes. Besides, such attire is perfect when you want to leave an impression. Wear a crisp formal shirt with a pair of trousers to impress your potential employer. If you have a meeting, clad yourself in suit. Nothing can give you a more sophisticated look than a suit.
For all your formal clothing needs, log on to online stores. They have an extensive collection of shirts, trousers, blazers, ties and suits. If you’d like, you could also choose various accessories like wallets, watches and shoes to complete your look.
Resort to Online Shopping
For all your fashion online shopping needs, online stores give you a wide range of clothes to choose from. A single catalogue has everything you need. Sit at home, use filters to choose the product, place your order and have the product delivered to your doorstep.
The teens falling under the age group of 13 and 19 have only six years in hand to enjoy the latest fashion that involves body piercing, dyeing hair with different colors wearing clothes that gives you a completely a different look. Such period comes once in everyone’s lifetime and unfortunately remains for a very short time. Therefore such opportunity should not be missed out. The changes that teen go through and his/her growth into adulthood should be celebrated.
It has been founded that many teens express themselves through what they wear and how they look. They lay emphasis on how they look and so they go for different looks that is completely different from the normal. Even if the process is painful they go for it just to look different. Apart from trying different outfits and different unsymmetrical hairstyle they also go for body piercing and tattooing. They do it just to create their own different identity.
Earlier teens with shaved heads or hair cut unsymmetrical or colored other than black or brown, rings worn on the other parts of the body other than ear and tattoos on the different region of the body were looked upon as people coming from different planets but amazingly those style which was accepted by the few has now become fashion statement for many. Therefore if you are a teenager then do not miss the chance to live to the fill that comes only once and is short lived. But at the same time you should remember that adulthood is not very far from you and there are some promises to be kept.
What impression will you create when you go for an interview to seek job? Will such permanent body mark (tattoo) done on those areas that remains exposed most of the time will create a good impression at your work place. Hair style and body piercing can be undone and clothes could be changed to formal but tattoo seems to be out of place when your profession does not support it. Though there are processes through which tattoos could be erased but not completely. Parents are really concerned when their teens want a tattoo because they are aware such form of arts if not done properly could be dangerous and such arts are permanent and will remain even after the fashion craze has faded. Therefore it is important for every teenager to go for those fashions that will not affect their future in any way.
The notion that trends in fashion take part in a phenomenon known as the trickle down effect has long been recognised by fashion pundits. A process of social emulation of society’s upper echelons by the subordinates provides myriad incentives for perpetual and incessant changes in fashion through a sequence of novelty and imitation. Dior’s ‘New Look’ of 1947 consisted of creations that were only affordable to a minority of affluent women of the time. Fashion was governed by haute-couture designers and presented to the masses to aspire toward. However, this traditional prospective has been vigorously challenged by many throughout the fashion world. Revisionist observations have introduced a paradoxical argument that fashion trends have, on numerous occasions, inadvertently emerged from the more obscure spheres of society onto the glamorous catwalks of high-fashion designers.
These styles can originate from a range of unorthodox sources, from leather-jacketed punks and dramatic Goths, the teddy boys of the 1950s, to ethnic minority cultures from all edges of the globe. Styles that emerge from the bottom of the social hierarchy are increasingly bubbling up to become the status of high fashion. There has been significant concern over the implications of this so-called bubble-up effect, such as the ambiguity between the notions of flattering imitation and outright exploitation of subcultures and minority groups. Democratization and globalisation of fashion has contributed to the abrasion of the authenticity and original identity of street-style culture. The inadvertent massification of maverick ideas undermines the ‘street value’ of the fashions for the very people who originally created them.
The underlying definition of subculture, with regards to anthropology and sociology, is a group of people who differentiates from the larger prevailing culture surrounding them. Members of a subculture have their own shared values and conventions, tending to oppose mainstream culture, for example in fashion and music tastes. Gelder proposed several principal characteristics that subcultures portrayed in general: negative relations to work and class, association with their own territory, living in non-domestic habitats, profligate sense of stylistic exaggeration, and stubborn refusal of massification. Hebdige emphasised that the opposition by subcultures to conform to standard societal values has been slated as a negative trait, where in fact the misunderstood groups are only attempting to find their own identity and meaning. The divergence away from social normalcy has unsurprisingly proliferated new ideas and styles, and this can be distinctly observed through the existence of fashion diversity. Ethnicity, race, class and gender can be physical distinctions of subcultures. Furthermore, qualities which determine a subculture may be aesthetic, linguistic, sexual, political, religious, or a mixture of these factors.
Sigmund Freud and his nephew Edward Bernays investigated the drivers of social control and the engineering of consent. Their psychological theories provide insight into the causes of deviation, by members of a subculture, from social norms. They highlighted the irrationality of human beings and discovered that by tapping into their deepest desires, it is possible to manipulate unconscious minds in order to manage society. Freud believed that stimulating the unconscious was crucial to creating desire, and therefore is conducive to economic progress and mass democracy. Bernays argued that individual freedom was unattainable because it would be “too dangerous to allow human beings to truly express themselves”. Through various methods of advertising, a distinctive ‘majority’ can be created in society, where a person belonging to this group is perceived to be normal, conventional and conformist. By using techniques to satisfy people’s inner desires, the rise of widespread consumerism plays a part in the organized manipulation of the masses. However, through the unleashing of certain uncontrolled aggressive instincts, occasional irrationality emerged in groups, and this repudiation of the banalities of ordinary life is believed to be a key factor in the generation of subcultures.
The expansion of youth styles from subcultures into the fashion market is a real network or infrastructure of new kinds of commercial and economic institutions. The creation of new and startling styles will be inextricably linked to a process of production and publicity inevitably leading to the diffusion and spread of the subversive subculture trends. For example, both mod and punk innovations have become incorporated into high and mainstream fashion after the initial low-key emergence of such styles. The complexities of society perpetuate continuous change in style and taste, with different classes or groups prevailing during certain periods of time. To deal with the question of which is the most influential source of fashion, it is necessary to consider distribution of power. It is not the same for all classes to have access to the means by which ideas are disseminated in our society, principally the mass media. In history, the elites have had greater power to prescribe meaning and dictate what is to be defined as normality.
Trickling down to shape the views of the substantial passive parts of the population, designers from high places were able to set trends that diffused from the upper to lower spectrum of society. Subcultures, it was suggested, go against nature and are subject to abhorrence and disapproval by followers of mainstream trends. Regrettably, criminal gangs, homeless subcultures and reckless skateboarders, among other ‘negative’ portrayals of subcultures have been accused of dragging down the image of other ‘positive’ subcultures which demonstrate creativity and inspiration. There is an unstable relationship between socialising and de-socialising forces. Nevertheless, German philosopher Kant observed that actual social life should and always will consist of in some way its own opposite asocial life, which he described as “unsociable sociality”.
Without doubt, fashion exhibits a dichotomy of conformity and differentiation, with contradictory groups aspiring to fit in and stand out from a crowd. Previously, the pace of change that fashion went through has spawned social emulation, a phenomenon whereby subordinate groups follow a process of imitation of the fashion tastes adopted by the upper echelons of society. Veblen, a Norwegian-American sociologist and economist, criticized in detail the rise of consumerism, especially the notion of conspicuous consumption, initiated by people of high status. Another influential sociologist Georg Simmel, classified two basic human instincts – the impetus to imitate one’s neighbours, and conversely, the individualistic behaviour of distinguishing oneself.
Simmel indicated the tendency towards social equalization with the desire for individual differentiation and change. Indeed, to elucidate Simmel’s theory of distinction versus imitation, the distinctiveness of subcultures in the early stages of a set fashion assures for its destruction as the fashion spreads. An idea or a custom has its optimal innovative intensity when it is constrained to a small clandestine group. After the original symbolic value of the idea has been exploited by commercialisation and accepted as a part of mass culture, the balance will have a tendency to tip towards imitation over distinction. An example of the imitation of a distinctive subculture is the evolution of blue jeans, which originating from humble American cowboys and gold-miners, demonstrate a bubble-up effect of a subculture. On a larger scale, it can be said that Western style dressing ‘bubbled-up’ from 19th Century Quaker’s attire, rather than ‘trickling down’ from the styles of Court aristocracy.
Simmel describes fashion as a process by which the society consolidates itself by reintegrating what disrupts it. The existence of fashion requires that some members of society must be perceived as superior or inferior. From economist Harvey Leibenstein’s perspective, fashion is a market constituted of ‘snobs’. The phenomenon of ‘snob-demand’ depicts consumers as snobs who will stop buying a product when the price drops too much. The trickle down effect has been related to a ‘band-wagon effect’ where the turnovers of a product are particularly high as a result of imitation. Every economic choice is bound not only to the pure computational rationality of individuals, but is influenced by irrational factors, such social imitation, contrary to what Simmel calls the ‘need for distinction’. However, a ‘reverse bandwagon effect’ acts as an opposing force when a snobbish consumer stops buying a product because too many others are buying it as well. The resultant force depends on the relative intensity of the two forces.
Subcultures have often endured a less than agreeable relationship with the mainstream as a result of exploitation and cultural appropriation. This often leads to the demise or evolution of a particular subculture once the originally novel ideas have been commercially popularised to an extent where the ideologies of the subculture have lost their fundamental connotations. The insatiable commercial hunger for new trends instigated the counterfeiting of subculture fashion, unjustifiably used on the sophisticated catwalks in fashion dictatorships of Paris, Milan and New York. It is not purely sartorial fashion but also music subcultures that are particularly vulnerable to the massification process. Certain types of music like jazz, punk, hip hop and rave were only listened to by minority groups at the initial stages of its history.
Events in history have had substantial impacts on the rise, development and evolution of subcultures. The First World War had an impact on men’s hairstyles as lice and fleas were ubiquitous in wartime trenches. Those with shaved heads were presumed to have served at the Front while those with long hair were branded cowards, deserters, and pacifists. During the 1920s, standard social etiquettes were discarded by certain youth subcultures, as drink, drugs and jazz infiltrated America, intensified by the alcohol prohibition of the time. A crime subculture emerged as smugglers discovered profit opportunities with Mexican and Cuban drug plantations. The Great Depression of the late 20s in North America caused pervasive poverty and unemployment. Consequently, a significant number of adolescents discovered identity and expression through urban youth gangs, such as the ‘dead end kids’.
Existentialists like Camus and Sartre also played a significant part in influencing the subcultures of the 1950s and 60s. Emphasis on freedom of the individual created a version of existential bohemianism resembling the beat generation. This subculture represented a version of bohemian hedonism; McClure declares that “non-conformity and spontaneous creativity were crucial”. In literature, Steinbeck’s “The Grapes of Wrath” depicted the economic hardship of these times. Initially burned and banned to American citizens, condemned as communist propaganda, this book was given the Nobel Prize for literature in 1962. It only took a few decades for the previously socially unacceptable book to diffuse into mainstream culture.
The popularisation of folk and cowboy songs led to their unique underlying patterns being mixed with elements of jazz, blues and soul, creating a new subculture of western swing. Technological progress facilitated “instantaneous mass media creating large subcultures from the ideas of a range of smaller subcultures”. Accordingly, a bubble-up effect can be seen where, through a process of innovation and diffusion, original ideas can spread into mass culture.
The process of integration has a potential to lead to the polarisation of warring subcultures, contributing to social disorganization. Shaw and Mckay assessed that although their data is not sufficient to determine “the extent to which membership in delinquent gangs produces delinquency”, membership is probably a contributing factor. They use the term ‘differential social organisation’ to depict how subculture formation is a result of broader economic and demographic forces that undermine conventional local institutions of control.
The institution of the family is weakened by these forces, and as a result, alternatives to the traditional family have arisen as various subcultures. Ethan Watters elucidated this social trend in his book defining urban tribes as “groups of never-married’s between the ages of 25 and 45 who gather in common-interest groups and enjoy an urban lifestyle”. Analysis of the long term perspective of street trends reveal that youth trends bubble-up every five to ten years, and that individualism, anarchy and self-realization, are universal in these trends.
In the process of bubbling up, there are two important concepts to consider, that of ‘diffusion’ and ‘defusion’. Fashion diffusion focuses on the individual and the crowd, particularly in this case the spreading of fashion in a systematic way from small scale to large scale institutions. It highlights the idea that fashion innovation and creativity drawn from subcultures are integrated into mass culture. In the process, non-conformist fashion may be subject to defusion, a diluting of the fundamental intrinsic meaning of the original subculture. The commercialisation of fashion is especially central to the danger of decontextualisation of trend origins. For example, the wearing of ripped jeans, an accepted form of attire nowadays, does not necessarily relate to the image of ‘hippies’ in modern times. The concept of identity and its modifications and transformations after a period of time should be carefully considered.
Analysis of street style is another fundamental aspect in determining the extent of a bubble-up effect in fashion. It is an idea that opposes the view that high fashion has given way to popular culture. Polhemus proposed that “styles which start life on the street corner have a way of ending up on the backs of top models on the world’s most prestigious fashion catwalks”. Prior to this new train of thought, the predominant view was that new looks began with couture and ‘trickle down’ to the mass market mainline fashion industry. Polhemus suggested that the evidence he found gave insight to a chain of events; initially genuine street innovation appears, followed by the featuring in mass media, such as magazines or television programmes, of street kids. In time, the ritzy version of the original idea makes an appearance, as a part of a top designer’s collection.
Polhemus identified two basic street-styles involving dressing up or dressing down. Those from a relatively affluent sector of society, such as the Beatniks and Hippies developed a penchant for the latter, preferring to descend down the socio-economic ladder in the interest of authenticity. Nowadays, the variety of attire seen on streets and nightclubs show that culture is no longer only a prerogative of the upper class. Although, the creatively democratic society that we progress towards optimizes fashion innovation, cynics of the bubble-up effect, such as Johnny Stuart, condemned in his book on rockers, “the fancy fashionable versions of the Perfecto which you see all over the place, dilute the significance, taking away its original magic, castrating it”.
Social crises of the 1950s and 1970s brought about new ideological constructions in response to the worsening economy, scarcity of jobs, loss of community, and the failure of consumerism to satisfy real needs. Racism became a solution to the problems of working-class life. Such periods of social turmoil resulted in fashion defusion, with many subcultures becoming increasingly detached from their foundation symbolisms. The connotations of the attire of the teddy boys during the 1970s bore little resemblance to the style of 1956. The original narcissistic upper-class style was somewhat irrevocably lost in a wave of ‘second generation teds’ that preferred fidelity to the classic ‘bad-boy’ stereotypes. The concept of specificity, subcultures responding to circumstances at distinctive moments in history, is depicted as vital to the study of subcultures.
Therefore the resultant mass-consumed item may draw distance from the emblem of the original subculture, attainable to all who can afford it. The loss of identity may prove to be a serious problem as subcultures may feel exploited, estranged and meaningless without a sense of belonging. Subcultures established a sense of community to certain individuals during a new post-war age that witnessed the deterioration of traditional social groupings. Polhemus claims that subcultures like Teddy Boys, Mods, Rockers, Skinheads, Rockabillies, Hipsters, Surfers, Hippies, Rastafarians, Headbangers, Goths, etc, as “social phenomenon style tribes cannot be dismissed as something transitory”. Known as the Kogal phenomenon, a subculture emerged where groups of young girls between the ages of 15 and 18 appeared on the streets of Tokyo with long dyed-brown or bleached-blond hair, tanned skin, heavy makeup, brightly coloured miniskirts or short pants that flare out at the bottom, and high platform boots.
‘Field’ has become more appropriate in the analysis of fashion changes. People engaged in similar lifestyles with intrinsically similar cultural capital, i.e. nationality, profession, family and friends form group identities interacting with others in the same ‘field’. This has been an important contributing factor to the birth of subcultures.The anachronistic belief that class was a determinant of fashion has reduced significantly, as confirmed by Bauman, who proposed the idea of ‘liquid society’, where fashion exists in a more flexible and malleable state.
A particular phenomenon of recent times, subject to both a trickle-down and a bubble-up effect of varying degrees, is the democratization and globalization of fashion. There has been an emergence of ‘prêt-a-porter’ invented by John Claude Weill in 1949. This development has increased the speed and diffusion of fashion trends across the world, which amplified the culture of fast fashion, massification and global standardisation. Standardised factory-made prêt-a-porter clothes, of which ‘wearability’ is crucial, sometimes descend from places of high fashion, for example inspired from couture. Designers such as Poiret, Dior and Lacroix produce a ready-to-wear line alongside their haute couture collection to take advantage of a wider market. Nevertheless, its mass-produced industrial nature detracts away from the exclusivity of traditional couture.
By 1930, couturiers like Schiaparelli, Delauney, and Patou began to design their own ready-to-wear boutiques, understanding the new emerging system of fashion whereby the moment that people stop copying you, it means that you are no longer any good. The democratization of couture disallowed it to sustain its elitist nature and therefore haute couture was beginning to accept that fashion was about emulation. Nevertheless, attire was not entirely uniform and equalised. Subtle nuances continued to mark social distinctions but mitigated the upper class penchant for conspicuous consumption.
Democratising fashion came hand in hand with a ‘disunification’ of feminine attire, which varied more in form and became less homogeneous. The fundamental attraction of making profit inspired innovation in styles and a perpetual search for lower costs through efficient industrial manufacturing. Institutions were evolving to an extent that the pretentious elitist sectors diminished in favour of universal mass production. The end of the Second World War brought about increased demand for fashion, encouraged by films and magazines of the time and the take off of global advertising campaigns, i.e. Levi’s, Rodier, Benetton, Naf-Naf, etc, highlighting the need for high standards of living, well-being and hedonistic mass culture. It is the globalisation and rapidity of fashion movements, as Kawamura amply discussed, that underline the fact that “fast-changing tastes of consumers are matched only by the cleverness of the department store that identifies trendsetters among young consumers and feeds their knowledge into the production cycle”.
It is impossible to conduct discourse in fashion without associating it with change, unpredictability and a high degree of uncertainty. It is very difficult to distinguish which goods will be adorned by the mass population and which trends will be instantaneously rejected. In general, industries need economic capital and political solidarity to function but these institutions are particularly difficult to uphold in the aesthetic industry. A paradox exists in that while on a superficial level everyone associates fashion with change, the underlying forces value stability. They argue that it is not possible to speak of one single fashion, but rather of different fashions existing at the same time. This is especially the case for an intrinsically fast-paced, competitive and fragmented industry. A bubble-up effect is inherent to a globalised fashion world, and the upward flow of fashion stemming from various subcultures contributes abundantly to this process.
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Our clothes down to the shoes we wear define our personal outlook on fashion. Girls most especially, compared to men are more conscious on how they look on what they were. This has made their closet jump packed with different tools and paraphernalia that only they would know how to pair to give them a perfect look of fashion. However, being fashionable they must know the rules that govern on wearing the animal print boots. Apply the following rules and you will not go wrong on your fashion journey.
Top five rules on wearing animal print boots.
Rule # 1
Less is more. Don’t overdo your outfit by wearing head to toe animal prints. You will look like you are going to a costume party than having a fashion show. Just a pair of animal printed boots will do like the leopard print boots which is predominantly popular among the animal prints.
Rule # 2
In order to show off your wild fashion sense while maintaining the sophisticated look, wear only simple tops like plain black mini dress or jump suits to have your animal printed boots be emphasized. You can also wear white shirts, black leggings and grace it with your animal print boots.
Rule # 3
The trendiest way to wear your animal printed boots is to have it over your black skinny jeans or black leggings. In this way, you will not only look sexy you have carried it well to show your wilder side. Ankle length boots with leopard prints are also on its trend nowadays, try to pair it over your plain skinny and have a fashionable look that does not look like a heavy flashy.
Rule # 4
No other printed accessories. This is the most common mistake women have ever done in fashion. They tend to wear mismatching prints all over the body thinking that they would go trendy if there have identical prints on their outfit. Well, we have to correct it. This degrades your fashion, more animal prints will cause you to look trashy than flashy.
Rule # 5
Plain colored tops. Animal print boots such as the leopard print boots work as a neutral for your plain colored tops. With the animal prints, you can wear and match this up with almost any colors like purple, brown, black, emerald green, turquoise, red and teal.
Women around the world always want to stay abreast of the latest fashion trends and want to buy the latest striking fashion accessories. Therefore, you want to lay your hands on every designer dress whether it is designed by Donna Karan or Betsey Johnson. For many years, women have been staying in touch with the latest fashion trends, thanks to various lifestyle magazines. But, now with the world getting digitalized, even these magazines have also become digital and it has taken the form of online fashion magazines.
Let us understand the importance of these fashion magazines for the modern women with the following mentioned points –
Advertisements are kept to a minimum- Usually a printed version of the magazine has numerous advertisements but on the online magazines, there are not many advertisements. These magazines adhere to quality content, which provides a feeling of exclusivity to every female reader. But, this does not mean they totally purge the advertisements.
Only females as target audience- One of the main pros of these magazines is that they have only females, belonging to different age groups, as their target audience. The main highlight is that the latest information and details are provided about designer dresses and accessories.
Latest fashion information- These online fashion magazines offer their readers with a treat of the best multimedia features. They display the best from fashion capitals like – Milan, New York, Milan, Dubai and London. You can be rest assured that every issue will carry the information about the latest fashion trends.
Economic charges- The subscription charges of these online magazines are also cost-effective, which helps in maintaining an enduring relationship. This way the women are able to save around 90% as compared to the magazines available on the stands. The payment method is also kept quite user friendly where, the payment can be made easily with the help of credit cards.
Friendly advice- You can have the expert’s advice on various fashion tips. These magazines also have Q &A section where different queries of the readers are answered. The best part of these magazines is that these magazines carry the online links where they can buy the best designer dress and fashion accessories at discounted prices.
Monthly issues- Most of the online fashion magazines usually have frequent publishing time period. Some are published monthly, weekly and even on alternate days. The trends in the fashion industry change very quickly and the readers are made aware of these trends through these magazines.
The fact cannot be denied that these online fashion magazines are the heartbeat of the fashion industry, providing the latest trends in the world of fashion.
Within each new challenge there are always hidden gifts, for these are the times that strengthen our resolve and allow us to build new dreams. Quote by – Flavia Weedn
With the costs of buying clothing today and the constant change in styles, bargains are a treasure. Especially on a limited budget, and for working women this is a definite challenge. Yet, dressing well can be done.
Since it takes money to build a wardrobe, the key is in the planning. Here are ten tips, tidbits, and ideas to get you started. . .
* Get to know your own particular fashion styles including the strengths and weaknesses of your figure type. Make a point to focus on a clear image of what you consider being well dressed. Get to know exactly what you like, want, and what looks well on you. Buy only what suits you best without relying on the opinion of someone else. Nor should you base your final decision on what is popular at the current moment.
* Learn to stretch your fashion dollars by saving any clothing you already have. Make an inventory of what you have in your closet by separating your wearable items into two main categories. One is your spring-summer wear; the other is your fall-winter wear. Then you can easily see what needs to be replaced when each season begins.
* Shoes complete your outfit and are major items that must be frequently kept clean and in shape. When you constantly walk along cemented sidewalks the heels and soles of your shoe take a beating. So, remember to have them repaired as frequently as possible and discard them when they are unsalvageable.
* Accessories add the crowning touch to any outfit and often may be the central aim of the way you dress. Sometimes your outfit is planned around your choice of accessories. As such an important part, give them your full attention. Keep your jewelry in a sparkling state by giving your pieces a frequent beauty bath. Just using soap and warm water, or a commercial cleaner is good.
* When shopping, plan to make trips only for items you need that will meet your personality and uniqueness. No matter how much you wish to follow the majority by purchasing what is advertised and offered in the stores, or what is popular at the moment, if you are not a glamorous entertainer, a closet full of after-five outfits will be a waste of money. Buy clothing for what you spend most of your time doing. This is where the biggest part of your money goes.
* Decide what you can afford to spend. If, like most people, you have a limited amount to spend on clothing, make the most of each purchase. Plan well and with good values in mind. Avoid trendy fashions and fads that go out of style within three to six months. For longer lasting value, classic styles in dresses, suits and coats are always a good investment.
* Choose a special place for everything and keep everything in its place. That way you will know where to look when you need it. Fold knitted sweaters and put them in a drawer or on a shelf. Keep jewelry, belts, hose, gloves, and hats in their own special place.
* Learn from past shopping mistakes. When your fashion budget is limited, set aside a clothing allowance. Try to keep a log of everything you spend for the month and plan ahead for emergencies. Allow half of your budget for your fall and winter wardrobe; the other half for spring-summer wear. Be sure to buy the best you can afford in your coats; the same applies for your dresses and suits. Quality is more important then quantity.
* At times when your social life is full or more active, an ideal wardrobe should include fashions that are suitable for special occasions. In this case, your clothing may be geared to a specific type of activity. For example, if you were active in sports, your wardrobe would reflect more sportswear. If you attend parties, entertain, or attend upscale events, then your wardrobe would have more eveningwear fashions.
* Keep up with fashion trends and what goes on in the fashion industry. Study fashion magazines. Go window-shopping before planning your wardrobe. Know what looks best on your figure and plan outfits, accessories, and shoes that you can wear and coordinate into several different ensembles.
These ten tips, tidbits and ideas are just a tip of the iceberg. Follow your own insight, know how much you have to spend, and buy only what matches your unique style. These wise and savvy fashion choices lead toward your pursuit to dressing well.